The Determination of the Effect of Mixture Proportions and Production Parameters on Density and Porosity Features of Miscanthus Reinforced Brake Pads by Taguchi Method

Mahmut Ünaldı, Recai Kuş
326 76


Brake pads are generally consisted of five different component groups. These groups are named as reinforcements, binders, abrasives, lubricants and fillers. Each of these groups has its own function such as to improve friction property, wear resistance, to increase strength, and to reduce porosity and noise. In this study, Miscanthus as reinforcement, cashew as lubricant, alumina as abrasive, calcite as filler, and phenolic resin as binder were used to produce composite ecological brake pad samples. Brake pads are usually developed through trial and error method and therefore, the evaluation process became complicated and time consuming due to the multiplicity of components, randomly selected mixing ratios, results obtained from the experiments, etc. and so Taguchi method is utilized to get rid of these difficulties of trial and error method. This study was made in order to determine the influence level of the brake pad ingredients and some production parameters to the density and porosity features of the brake pad samples. The ecological brake pad samples were manufactured and experiments were conducted to Taguchi Method L32 orthogonal array. According to the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) tables and other graphical results obtained from Taguchi method, the density feature of brake pad samples are more influenced by the mixture proportion factors and moulding temperature, curing time and curing temperature factors have a minor effect on porosity feature of brake pad samples.


ANOVA, Brake pad, Density, Miscanthus, Porosity, Taguchi method

Full Text:



Alaneme, K. (2012). Influence of thermo-mechanical treatment on the tensile behaviour and CNT evaluated fracture toughness of borax premixed SiCp reinforced AA 6063 composites. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 7(1), 96-100.

Anonymous. What is a signal factor. Design of Experiment. Retrieved from

Benson, J. (2011). Antimicrobial Copper Kills 97 Percent of Deadly Bacteria, Reduces Infection Rate by 40 Percent. 1st International Conference on Prevention and Infection Control (ICPIC). Retrieved from

Cho, M. H., Kim, S. J., Kim, D., & Jang, H. (2005). Effects of ingredients on tribological characteristics of a brake lining: an experimental case study. Wear, 258(11–12), 1682-1687. doi:

Eriksson, M., Bergman, F., & Jacobson, S. (2002). On the nature of tribological contact in automotive brakes. Wear, 252(1–2), 26-36. doi:

Eriksson, M., & Jacobson, S. (2000). Tribological surfaces of organic brake pads. Tribology International, 33(12), 817-827. doi:

Ficici, F., Durat, M., & Kapsiz, M. (2014). Optimization of tribological parameters for a brake pad using Taguchi design method. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 36(3), 653-659.

German, R. M. (2005). Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materals Processing: The Processes, Materials, Products, Properties and Applications: Metal Powder Industries Federation.

Girija, E. K., Kumar, G. S., Thamizhavel, A., Yokogawa, Y., & Kalkura, S. N. (2011). Fabrication of Hydroxyapatite-Calcite Nanocomposite. In R. Narayan, P. Colombo, S. Widjaja, & D. Singh (Series Eds.), Advances in Bioceramics and Porous Ceramics VIII : Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Vol. 32. (pp. 11). doi:10.1002/9781118095263.ch1

Ibhadode, A., & Dagwa, I. (2008). Development of Asbestos-free Friction Lining Material From Palm Kernel Shell. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 30(2), 166-173. doi:10.1590/S1678-58782008000200010

Jaafar, T. R., Selamat, M. S., & Kasiran, R. (2012). Selection of Best Formulation for Semi-Metallic Brake Friction Materials Development. In K. Kondoh (Ed.), Powder Metallurgy (pp. 30).

Jang, H., Ko, K., Kim, S. J., Basch, R. H., & Fash, J. W. (2004). The Effect of Metal Fibers on The Friction Performance of Automotive Brake Friction Materials. Wear, 256(3-4), 406-414. doi:10.1016/s0043-1648(03)00445-9

Kim, S. J., Kim, K. S., & Jang, H. (2003). Optimization of manufacturing parameters for a brake lining using Taguchi method. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 136(1–3), 202-208. doi:

Lu, Y. (2006). A Combinatorial Approach for Automotive Friction Materials: Effects of Ingredients on Friction Performance. Composites Science and Technology, 66(3), 591-598.

Maleque, M., & Atiqah, A. (2013). Development and Characterization of Coir Fibre Reinforced Composite Brake Friction Materials. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 38(11), 3191-3199.

Maleque, M., Atiqah, A., Talib, R., & Zahurin, H. (2012). New natural fibre reinforced aluminium composite for automotive brake pad. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 7(2).

Mutlu, Sugözü, I., & Keskin, A. (2015). The effects of porosity in friction performance of brake pad using waste tire dust. Polímeros, 25(5), 440-446.

Mutlu, I., Eldogan, O., & Findik, F. (2006). Tribological Properties of Some Phenolic Composites Suggested for Automotive Brakes. Tribology International, 39(4), 317-325. doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2005.02.002

Ntziachristos, L., & Boulter, P. (2009). Road vehicle tyre and brake wear (9/2009). Retrieved from

Sellami, A., Kchaou, M., Elleuch, R., Cristol, A.-L., & Desplanques, Y. (2014). Study of the interaction between microstructure, mechanical and tribo-performance of a commercial brake lining material. Materials & Design, 59, 84-93.

Singh, K. H., Kumar, A., & Kumar, R. (2014). Optimization of Quality and Performance of Brake Pads Using Taguchi’s Approach. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 5(7), 632-639.

Talib, R. J., Muchtar, A., & Azhari, C. H. (2007). The Performance of Semi–Metallic Friction Materials For Passenger Cars. Jurnal Teknologi, 46(1), 53–72.

Zaharudin, A., Talib, R., Berhan, M., Budin, S., & Aziurah, M. (2012). Taguchi Method for Optimizing The Manufacturing Parameters of Friction Materials. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 8(2), 83-88.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN: 2146-9067